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Bladder outlet obstruction
Alternative namesBOO; Lower urinary tract obstruction; Prostatism
DefinitionThis obstruction is at the base of the bladder, and it reduces or prevents the flow of urine into the urethra (the tube that carries urine out of the body).
Causes, incidence, and risk factors
Bladder outlet obstruction can have many different causes. Some of the most common causes of BOO include:
Less common causes of bladder outlet obstruction include:
Bladder outlet obstruction is most common in the aging male. Bladder stones and bladder cancer are also more commonly seen in men than women. As men age, their chances of developing these diseases increases dramatically. One in three American males over the age of 60 has significant symptoms of bladder outlet obstruction.Related topics:
The symptoms of bladder outlet obstruction may vary. The most common symptoms experienced include:
Signs and tests
If bladder outlet obstruction is suspected, your health care provider will take a thorough history of your problems and perform a physical exam. On physical exam, your health care provider may find one or more causes of bladder outlet obstruction which include:
In addition to a physical exam your health care provider may order a variety of tests which may include:
Treatment of bladder outlet obstruction depends on the underlying cause of the obstruction. For most cases, a Foley catheter (a catheter through the urethra into the bladder) is able to relieve the obstruction temporarily.
Occasionally, a suprapubic catheter (a catheter through the abdomen into the bladder) is needed to drain the bladder.
Long-term treatment of bladder outlet obstruction is mostly surgical. However, medical treatment options are available for many of the diseases that cause BOO. You should have a thorough discussion of treatment options with your health care provider.
Expectations (prognosis)If diagnosed early, most causes of BOO can be treated with great intended effects. However, if diagnosis is delayed, permanent damage can result.
Complications of BOO can be devastating. Permanent damage can be done on all parts of the urinary system with long term and/or high-grade bladder outlet obstruction.
Complications of BOO include:
Calling your health care providerIf you feel that you have signs or symptoms of bladder outlet obstruction, call your health care provider. Early diagnosis is important and can often lead to a simple and effective cure.
PreventionPrevention of BOO is achieved by preventing the underlying cause of obstruction.
Update Date: 5/25/2002Young Kang, M.D., Department of Urology, Columbia University College of Physicians and Surgeons, New York, NY. Review provided by VeriMed Healthcare Network.
Last updated: Tue, 06 Jan 2009 00:20:03 GMT