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Primary pulmonary hypertension
Alternative namesPulmonary arterial hypertension; Sporadic primary pulmonary hypertension; Familial primary pulmonary hypertension
Pulmonary hypertension is when the blood pressure in the arteries of the lungs is abnormally high. "Primary" means that there are no other diseases of the heart or lungs causing the high blood pressure.
(Pulmonary = lungs; hypertension = high blood pressure)
Causes, incidence, and risk factors
The cause of primary pulmonary hypertension is unknown. Some cases are caused by a genetic defect.
The small arteries of the lung narrow throughout the lungs. Pulmonary hypertension is the result of greater resistance to blood flow. As a result of the increased workload caused by this resistance, the right side of the heart becomes enlarged. Eventually, progressive heart failure may develop.
Signs and tests
A physical examination shows enlargement of the veins in the neck, normal lungs, a heart murmur, enlargement of the liver, and swelling due to fluid retention in the tissues.
Tests may include:
There is no known cure. The goal of treatment is to control symptoms. Some people respond to treatment with oral medications, such as calcium channel blockers and diuretics. Others may need drugs like intravenous epoprostenol.
Recently, a new oral drug that blocks abnormal constriction of blood vessels has become available and shows promise in treating pulmonary hypertension.
As the disease progresses, oxygen may be necessary. If all else fails, suitable candidates may be helped by lung or heart-lung transplantation .
Support GroupsPulmonary Hypertension Association
Expectations (prognosis)The outlook has traditionally been poor, but new therapies may produce better results. Some people with this condition may develop progressive heart failure leading to death.
Calling your health care provider
Call your health care provider if:
Most patients with primary pulmonary hypertension are treated at centers which specialize in the care of these patients.
Update Date: 5/14/2003David A. Kaufman, M.D., Pulmonary & Critical Care Medicine, University of Pennsylvania Medical Center, Philadelphia, PA. Review provided by VeriMed Healthcare Network.
Last updated: Tue, 06 Jan 2009 00:20:03 GMT