Please be patient! It may take up to ONE minute to load all the Engines.
Problems? Please contact our support.
Developmental reading disorder
Alternative namesDevelopmental reading disorder, also called dyslexia, is a reading disability resulting from the inability to process graphic symbols.
Causes, incidence, and risk factors
Between 2 and 8% of elementary-age children have some degree of reading disability. Developmental reading disorder (DRD) is not caused by vision problems, but rather is a problem involving higher cortical (brain) processing of symbols. Children with DRD may have trouble rhyming and separating the sounds in spoken words. These abilities appear to be critical in the process of learning to read.
Most children with DRD have normal intelligence, and many have above-average intelligence. The disorder is a specific information processing problem that is not connected with the ability to think or comprehend complex ideas.
DRD may appear in combination with developmental writing disorder and developmental arithmetic disorder. All of these processes involve the manipulation of symbols to convey information. These conditions may appear singly or in any combination.
Signs and testsThe first step is to perform a complete medical, developmental, social, and school performance history. Physical and neurologic examinations are also necessary, followed by psychoeducational testing and psychological assessment. Other causes of learning disabilities will need to be ruled out before the diagnosis of DRD can be confirmed.
TreatmentSpecial education services may include specialist help, individualized tutoring, or special day classes. Every individual has different requirements and an Individual Education Plan should be created for each child. Positive reinforcement is important as many students with learning disabilities have poor self-esteem. Psychological counseling may be helpful.
Expectations (prognosis)Marked improvement in reading and understanding can be achieved with remedial instruction. However, difficulties with reading may persist throughout adulthood.
Calling your health care providerCall your health care provider if your child appears to be having trouble learning to read.
Learning disorders tend to run in families. DRD is one kind of learning disorder. Affected families should make every effort to recognize existing problems early.
For families without a previous history of learning disabilities, an intervention can begin as early as preschool or kindergarten if teachers detect early signs. Early intervention will provide the best possible outcome.
Update Date: 1/22/2003Jonathan Fanaroff, M.D., Department of Pediatrics, Rainbow Babies and Children's Hospital, Case Western Reserve University, Cleveland, OH. Review provided by VeriMed Healthcare Network.
Last updated: Tue, 06 Jan 2009 00:20:03 GMT